The European and Japanese empires were shattered and communist parties played a leading role in many independence movements. A Marxist—Leninist government was also created under Marshal Tito in Yugoslaviabut Tito's independent policies led to the expulsion of Yugoslavia from the Cominform which had replaced the Comintern and Titoism was branded " deviationist ". On the previous day, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev the eighth and final leader of the Soviet Union resigned, declared his office extinct and handed over its powers — including control of the Soviet nuclear missile launching codes — to Russian President Boris Yeltsin. That evening at 7:
The European and Japanese empires were shattered and communist parties played a leading role in many independence movements. On the previous day, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev the eighth and final leader of the Soviet Union resigned, declared his office extinct and handed over its powers — including control of the Soviet nuclear missile launching codes — to Russian President Boris Yeltsin.
That evening at 7: North Korea currently refers to its leading ideology as Juchewhich is portrayed as a development of Marxism—Leninism. Communist parties, or their descendant parties, remain politically important in a number of other countries. In Indiaas of Marchcommunists lead the government of only one stateKerala.
In Nepalcommunists hold a majority in the parliament. In these countries, the land is a universal public monopoly administered by the state, as are natural resources and vital industries and services. The public sector is the dominant sector in these economies and the state plays a central role in coordinating economic development.
Marxism does not see communism as a "state of affairs" to be established, but rather as the expression of a real movement, with parameters which are derived completely from real life and not based on any intelligent design.
At the root of Marxism is the materialist conception of historyknown as historical materialism for short. It holds that the key characteristic of economic systems through history has been the mode of production and that the change between modes of production has been triggered by class struggle.
According to this analysis, the Industrial Revolution ushered the world into a new mode of production: Thus with capitalism the world was divided between two major classes: Historical materialism goes on and says: This was another of the keys behind the consolidation of capitalism as the new mode of production, which is the final expression of class and property relations and also has led into a massive expansion of production.
It is therefore only in capitalism that private property in itself can be abolished.
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In between capitalism and communism there is the dictatorship of the proletariata democratic state where the whole of the public authority is elected and recallable under the basis of universal suffrage.
An important concept in Marxism is socialization vs. Nationalization is merely state ownership of property, whereas socialization is actual control and management of property by society. Marxism considers socialization its goal and considers nationalization a tactical issue, with state ownership still being in the realm of the capitalist mode of production; in the words of Engels: Not a handful of rich people, but all the working people must enjoy the fruits of their common labour.
Machines and other improvements must serve to ease the work of all and not to enable a few to grow rich at the expense of millions and tens of millions of people. This new and better society is called socialist society.
In Februaryfor five years Leninism was the Russian application of Marxist economics and political philosophy, effected and realised by the Bolsheviks, the vanguard party who led the fight for the political independence of the working class.
Marxism—Leninism, Stalinism and Trotskyism Joseph StalinMarxism—Leninism is a political ideology developed by Joseph Stalin which according to its proponents is based in Marxism and Leninism.
The term describes the specific political ideology which Stalin implemented in the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and in a global scale in the Comintern.
There is no definite agreement between historians of about whether Stalin actually followed the principles of Marx and Lenin. As such, it is the most prominent ideology associated with communism.
Marxism—Leninism stayed after de-StalinizationStalinism did not. After de-Stalinization, Marxism—Leninism was kept in the Soviet Union, but certain anti-revisionist tendencies such as Hoxhaism and Maoism argued that it was deviated from, therefore different policies were applied in Albania and China, which became more distanced from the Soviet Union.
Marxism—Leninism has been criticized by other communist and Marxist tendencies. They argue that Marxist—Leninist states did not establish socialism, but rather state capitalism. In the Soviet Union, this struggle against Marxism—Leninism was represented by Trotskyismwhich describes itself as a Marxist and Leninist tendency.
It supports the theory of permanent revolution and world revolution instead of the two stage theory and socialism in one country. Trotsky and his supporters, struggling against Stalin for power in the Soviet Union, organized into the Left Opposition and their platform became known as Trotskyism.
Libertarian Marxism Libertarian Marxism is a broad range of economic and political philosophies that emphasize the anti-authoritarian aspects of Marxism.
Early currents of libertarian Marxism, known as left communism,  emerged in opposition to Marxism—Leninism  and its derivatives, such as StalinismMaoism and Trotskyism.State Communism, the contemporary Soviet government, is not and can never become the threshold of a free, voluntary, non-authoritarian Communist society, because the very essence and nature of governmental, compulsory Communism excludes such an evolution.
In addition, it supports cooperatives (groups of people who work together to meet their collective needs) and communal firms as forms of ownership, which were common during the communist era. In the Moscow Trials, many old Bolsheviks who had played prominent roles during the Russian Revolution of or in Lenin's Soviet government afterwards, including Kamenev, Zinoviev, Rykov and Bukharin, were accused, pleaded guilty and executed.
that during the first decade of Soviet rule, , there were only 3 years of good harvests, 5 years of poor harvests and 2 famine years, a situation even worse than during the .
Stephen R. Mackinnon & John Fairbank invariably failed to separate fondness for the Chinese communist revolution from fondness for Gong Peng, the communist fetish who worked together with Anneliese Martens to infatuate the American wartime reporters.
(More, refer to the Communist Platonic Club at wartime capital Chungking and The . In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.