This unit is about the skills and knowledge required by an IT User to use a range of basic image editing and design tools and techniques to produce appropriate, straightforward or routine image files. Any aspect that is unfamiliar will require support and advice from others. Using imaging software to design a logo or banner for school website. Activities supporting the assessment of this award Assessor's guide to interpreting the criteria General Information QCF general description for Level 2 qualifications Achievement at QCF level 2 EQF Level 3 reflects the ability to select and use relevant knowledge, ideas, skills and procedures to complete well-defined tasks and address straightforward problems.
History of genetics The observation that living things inherit traits from their parents has been used since prehistoric times to improve crop plants and animals through selective breeding.
His second law is the same as what Mendel published. In his third law, he developed the basic principles of mutation he can be considered a forerunner of Hugo de Vries. Blending of traits in the progeny is now explained by the action of multiple genes with quantitative effects.
Another theory that had some support at that time was the inheritance of acquired characteristics: Bateson both acted as a mentor and was aided significantly by the work of female scientists from Newnham College at Cambridge, specifically the work of Becky SaundersNora Darwin Barlowand Muriel Wheldale Onslow.
InThomas Hunt Morgan argued that genes are on chromosomesbased on observations of a sex-linked white eye mutation in fruit flies.
Each strand of DNA is a chain of nucleotidesmatching each other in the center to form what look like rungs on a twisted ladder. Although genes were known to exist on chromosomes, chromosomes are composed of both protein and DNA, and scientists did not know which of the two is responsible for inheritance.
The structure also suggested a simple method for replication: This property is what gives DNA its semi-conservative nature where one strand of new DNA is from an original parent strand.
In the following years, scientists tried to understand how DNA controls the process of protein production. The nucleotide sequence of a messenger RNA is used to create an amino acid sequence in protein; this translation between nucleotide sequences and amino acid sequences is known as the genetic code.
In this theory, Ohta stressed the importance of natural selection and the environment to the rate at which genetic evolution occurs.
This technology allows scientists to read the nucleotide sequence of a DNA molecule. Mendelian inheritance A Punnett square depicting a cross between two pea plants heterozygous for purple B and white b blossoms.
At its most fundamental level, inheritance in organisms occurs by passing discrete heritable units, called genesfrom parents to offspring. These different, discrete versions of the same gene are called alleles. In the case of the pea, which is a diploid species, each individual plant has two copies of each gene, one copy inherited from each parent.
Diploid organisms with two copies of the same allele of a given gene are called homozygous at that gene locuswhile organisms with two different alleles of a given gene are called heterozygous.
The set of alleles for a given organism is called its genotypewhile the observable traits of the organism are called its phenotype. When organisms are heterozygous at a gene, often one allele is called dominant as its qualities dominate the phenotype of the organism, while the other allele is called recessive as its qualities recede and are not observed.
Some alleles do not have complete dominance and instead have incomplete dominance by expressing an intermediate phenotype, or codominance by expressing both alleles at once. Notation and diagrams[ edit ] Genetic pedigree charts help track the inheritance patterns of traits.
Geneticists use diagrams and symbols to describe inheritance. A gene is represented by one or a few letters. When the F1 offspring mate with each other, the offspring are called the "F2" second filial generation.
One of the common diagrams used to predict the result of cross-breeding is the Punnett square. When studying human genetic diseases, geneticists often use pedigree charts to represent the inheritance of traits.Quantopian Overview. Quantopian provides you with everything you need to write a high-quality algorithmic trading strategy.
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